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智能主动防触电插座在光电传感器中的应用

发布时间:2019-9-25 8:54:50  浏览:

随着(zhe)社会经济与科技的发(fa)展,人(ren)们对(dui)家(jia)居生(sheng)活的要求正逐步的提高(gao)。伴随越来(lai)越多的家(jia)电的使用(yong),将会存(cun)在(zai)一些安全隐患。插座做为(wei)连接电器的核(he)心器件,其(qi)安全问题变得尤为(wei)重要,而现今市场插座的功能(neng)往往十分单一,不能(neng)满(man)足人(ren)们对(dui)安全保护的需求。

这里为大家介绍了一种基于光电对管智能插座,这种插座打破传统插座的弊端,当外部条件所引发断电需求时,基于光电对管的智能插座将会从内部进行自我断电,实现自我保护,大大提安全系数,在当今科技高速发展的社会中,智能插座有着广阔的市场前景。

1、智能插座的总体方案

基于光(guang)电(dian)对(dui)(dui)(dui)管的(de)(de)(de)(de)智能插(cha)座(zuo),采用双STC12C5A60S2单(dan)(dan)片(pian)(pian)(pian)机作为主要控制(zhi)芯片(pian)(pian)(pian),与LM393对(dui)(dui)(dui)射(she)光(guang)电(dian)传感器(qi)(qi)(qi)、继电(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)共同构成智能插(cha)座(zuo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)核心器(qi)(qi)(qi)件。在插(cha)座(zuo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)每个插(cha)孔两边(bian)将光(guang)电(dian)发(fa)射(she)器(qi)(qi)(qi)和接(jie)收器(qi)(qi)(qi)相互对(dui)(dui)(dui)射(she)安装,发(fa)射(she)的(de)(de)(de)(de)光(guang)直接(jie)对(dui)(dui)(dui)准接(jie)收器(qi)(qi)(qi),当被(bei)测物挡住光(guang)束时(shi),对(dui)(dui)(dui)射(she)光(guang)电(dian)对(dui)(dui)(dui)管发(fa)生(sheng)电(dian)压(ya)变(bian)化(hua),产生(sheng)数字量0,1,随(sui)后发(fa)送给单(dan)(dan)片(pian)(pian)(pian)机,单(dan)(dan)片(pian)(pian)(pian)机接(jie)收到信号控制(zhi)继电(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)通路(lu)。以三相插(cha)座(zuo)为例,只有当三个插(cha)孔同时(shi)检测到被(bei)测物时(shi)才会通电(dian)。系统的(de)(de)(de)(de)总框图如图1。

 智能插座的总体方案

2、硬件(jian)设计

该项(xiang)目运(yun)用STC12C5A60S2为核心芯(xin)片,同时选(xuan)用LM393对射光电对管(guan),复位(wei)电路模块构成外围(wei)电路来完成智能插座控制系统的硬件设计。

2.1对(dui)射光电(dian)传感器电(dian)路

该电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)采用(yong)LM393,LM393是电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)比较(jiao)(jiao)器(qi),将红外传感器(qi)接收和失(shi)去光信号时(shi)产(chan)生(sheng)的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻值变(bian)(bian)化(hua)(hua),变(bian)(bian)成(cheng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)信号传递(di)给电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)比较(jiao)(jiao)器(qi)的(de)同(tong)相(xiang)(xiang)输(shu)入端(duan)(duan),这(zhei)个变(bian)(bian)化(hua)(hua)的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)信号与电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)比较(jiao)(jiao)器(qi)的(de)反(fan)相(xiang)(xiang)输(shu)入端(duan)(duan)的(de)基准电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)相(xiang)(xiang)比较(jiao)(jiao),当同(tong)相(xiang)(xiang)端(duan)(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)大于反(fan)相(xiang)(xiang)端(duan)(duan)端(duan)(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)时(shi),电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)比较(jiao)(jiao)器(qi)的(de)输(shu)出(chu)端(duan)(duan)输(shu)出(chu)高电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)平电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya),当同(tong)相(xiang)(xiang)端(duan)(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)小于反(fan)相(xiang)(xiang)端(duan)(duan)端(duan)(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)时(shi),电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)比较(jiao)(jiao)器(qi)的(de)输(shu)出(chu)端(duan)(duan)输(shu)出(chu)低电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)平电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya),此(ci)时(shi)LED灯亮。

2.2电源模块

首先是对220V的高压(ya)进行变压(ya),变压(ya)之后(hou)的电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)仍然为交(jiao)流(liu)(liu),在通过(guo)整流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)后(hou),变为脉(mai)冲(chong)直流(liu)(liu)。后(hou)面再接滤波电(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)可以消除脉(mai)冲(chong),但是输出的直流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)仍不稳(wen)(wen)定。最后(hou),通过(guo)稳(wen)(wen)压(ya)电(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu),使得电(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)的稳(wen)(wen)定性大(da)大(da)提高。如图(tu)(tu)2是电(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)模块(kuai)流(liu)(liu)程图(tu)(tu)。

 

3、软件设计

本(ben)系(xi)统由单片(pian)机(ji)C语(yu)言(yan)编写而(er)成,采用模块(kuai)化结构设(she)计(ji)。主要实现的(de)功能是:把单片(pian)机(ji)控(kong)制技术、对(dui)射光电(dian)(dian)对(dui)管有机(ji)地结合起来,运用继电(dian)(dian)器等完成基于单片(pian)机(ji)STC12C5A60S2的(de)智能插(cha)座系(xi)统的(de)设(she)计(ji)。其内部软件流程图如图3所示。

 智能插座内部软件流程图

3.1对射光电传(chuan)感器(qi)原(yuan)理

它(ta)可以相对于光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)轴在(zai)0°到(dao)25°的(de)(de)范围(wei)内改变(bian)发射角度,使得光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)束几乎(hu)从一条发射线反(fan)射或者从该反(fan)射线返回。光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)纤(xian)(也称(cheng)为光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)纤(xian)LWL)扩大(da)了光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)电传感器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)应用范围(wei),并形(xing)成了一种(zhong)特殊的(de)(de)嵌入式(shi)(shi)收发器(qi)(qi)。它(ta)可以在(zai)特殊的(de)(de)环境(jing)中使用,检测(ce)微小的(de)(de)物体。它(ta)在(zai)非(fei)常高的(de)(de)外(wai)界温度中,在(zai)结构(gou)受限(xian)制的(de)(de)环境(jing)里,都可以获得满意的(de)(de)答(da)案(an)。对射式(shi)(shi)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)电开(kai)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)若把发光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)器(qi)(qi)和收光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)器(qi)(qi)分离开(kai),就可使检测(ce)距离加大(da)。由一个发光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)器(qi)(qi)和一个收光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)器(qi)(qi)组成的(de)(de)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)电开(kai)关(guan)就称(cheng)为以射分离式(shi)(shi)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)电开(kai)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang),简称(cheng)对射式(shi)(shi)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)电开(kai)关(guan)。

它的检(jian)(jian)测距离(li)可达几米乃至几十(shi)米。使用时,光发射(she)器(qi)和光接收器(qi)分别(bie)设置在检(jian)(jian)测对象通(tong)过路径的两侧,检(jian)(jian)测对象通(tong)过时光路被阻断(duan),光接收器(qi)用于输出开关控(kong)制信号。

3.2对射光电传(chuan)感器实验数据真值表

如表1所示,A,B,C分(fen)别为(wei)三孔处的输入‘0’无遮挡,‘1’有遮挡。

 对射光电传感器实验数据真值表

4、光电(dian)传感器(qi)技术(shu)分析与前(qian)景预测(ce)

根(gen)据发展的需(xu)要光(guang)电(dian)传(chuan)(chuan)感器的传(chuan)(chuan)输速度(du)与稳定性方面应用广泛,有着很(hen)大(da)的市场(chang)前景(jing)需(xu)求也会变的更大(da)。

 

本设计主要采用插座元器件进行控制,在触电危险发生之前进行主动断电保护,防患于未然,相较于传统的安全插座在发生危险时才做出反应,J9九游会AG 的插座设计更加的安全,构思新颖,有着很广阔的发展前景。


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